PROGRAMMING

What is Programming?

Programming is the process of creating a set of instructions that tell a computer how to perform a task and when to it




Programming Languages

Programming language Description
FortranFortran (FORmula TRANslator) was developed by IBM Corporation in the mid-1950s to be used for scientific and engineering applications that requirecomplex mathematical computations. It’s still widely used and its latest versions are object oriented.
COBOLCOBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) was developed in the late 1950s by computer manufacturers, the U.S. government and industrial computer users based on a language developed by Grace Hopper, a career U.S. Navy officer and computer scientist. COBOL is still widely used for commercial applications that require precise and efficient manipulation of large amounts of data. Its latest version supports object-oriented programming.
PascalResearch in the 1960s resulted in structured programming—a disciplined approach to writing programs that are clearer, easier to test and debug and easier to modify than large programs produced with previous techniques. One of the more tangible results of this research was the development of Pascal by Professor Niklaus Wirth in 1971. It was designed for teaching structured programming and was popular in college courses for several decades.
AdaAda, based on Pascal, was developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) during the 1970s and early 1980s. The DOD wanted a single language that would fill most of its needs. The Pascal-based language was named after Lady Ada Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron. She’s credited with writing the world’s first computer program in the early 1800s (for the Analytical Engine mechanical computing device designed by Charles Babbage). Its latest version supports object-oriented programming.
BasicBasic was developed in the 1960s at Dartmouth College to introduce novices to programming. Many of its latest versions are object oriented.
CC was implemented in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories. It initially became widely known as the UNIX operating system’s development language. Today, most of the code for general-purpose operating systems is written in C or C++.




C++C++, an extension of C, was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories. C++ provides a number of features that “spruce up” the C language, but more important, it provides capabilities for object oriented programming. 
Objective-CObjective-C is an object-oriented language based on C. It was developed in the early 1980s and later acquired by Next, which in turn was acquired by Apple. It has become the key programming language for the Mac OS X operating system and all iOS-powered devices (such as iPods, iPhones and iPads). 
Visual BasicMicrosoft’s Visual Basic language was introduced in the early 1990s to simplify the development of Microsoft Windows applications. Its latest versions support object-oriented programming. 
Visual C#Microsoft’s three primary object-oriented programming languages are Visual Basic, Visual C++ (based on C++) and C# (based on C++ and Java, and developed for integrating the Internet and the web into computer applications). 
PHPPHP is an object-oriented, “open-source” (see Section 1.7) “scripting” language supported by a community of users and developers and is used by numerous websites including Wikipedia and Facebook. PHP is platform independentimplementations exist for all major UNIX, Linux, Mac and Windows operating systems. PHP also supports many databases, including MySQL.
PythonPython, another object-oriented scripting language, was released publicly in Developed by Guido van Rossum of the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science in Amsterdam (CWI), Python draws heavily from Modula-3—a systems programming language. Python is “extensible”—it can be extended through classes and programming interfaces. 
JavaScriptJavaScript is the most widely used scripting language. It’s primarily used to add programmability to web pages—for example, animations and interactivity with the user. It’s provided with all major web browsers. 
Ruby on RailsRuby—created in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro Matsumoto—is an open source, object-oriented programming language with a simple syntax that’s similar to Python. Ruby on Rails combines the scripting language Ruby with the Rails web application framework developed by 37Signals. Their book, Getting Real (gettingreal.37signals.com/toc.php), is a must read for web developers. Many Ruby on Rails developers have reported productivity gains over other languages when developing database-intensive web applications. Ruby on Rails was used to build Twitter’s user interface 
ScalaScala (www.scala-lang.org/node/273)—short for “scalable language”—was designed by Martin Odersky, a professor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland. Released in 2003, Scala uses both the object-oriented and functional programming paradigms and is designed to integrate with Java. Programming in Scala can reduce the amount of code in your applications significantly. Twitter and Foursquare use Scala. 




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